Beam me up, Scotty

July 17, 2020


The renowned command turned catchphrase issued by Captain Kirk set in the Sci-Fi premises of Star Trek has made its way onto the real world with the advent of Quantum Teleportation which marks an important advance in the field of Quantum Computing.

Quantum Teleportation is defined as the process in which Quantum Information can be transmitted from one location to another, with the help of classical communication based on the previously shared Quantum Entanglement between the sending and receiving location. To put in simple terms, recall your recent Online Class/Webinar where the presenter himself couldn't reach you physically, yet his voice and images did! That counts as Teleportation, albeit in the macroscopic scale. Let us now transcend into the limitless Quantum World, where teleportation involves the transportation of information, rather than the transportation of matter. Your Anywhere Door Dreams from Doraemon can wait for quite some time for now.

In a private letter penned to Dr. Max Born in the year 1947, the genius Dr. Albert Einstein colorfully dismissed Quantum Entanglement as "Spooky Action At A Distance". 72 years later for us mortal beings, and none so for the photons, in July 13, 2019 physicists from the University of Glasgow, had captured a strong visual evidence of the elusive phenomenon of Quantum Entanglement called Bell Entanglement. It underpins the core field of Quantum Mechanics-the properties of one particle affect the properties of another, even when the particles are separated by a large distance for a sustained period of time, the particles (generally photons, electrons) are then said to be in an entangled state leading to correlations between observable physical properties of the particles. Do note that even though entangled Quantum Particles seem to interact with each other instantaneously -regardless of the distance, breaking the Speed of Light – with our current understanding of Quantum Mechanics, it is impossible to fathom this reality. When we conquer communication through Quantum Entanglement, faster-than-light communications will become a real possibility.



This is where researchers at the University of Rochester, John Nichol and Andrew Jordan, step in with their proposed theory backed up with credible observations that Teleportation at the Quantum Scale is also possible between Electrons! Scientists have recently demonstrated Quantum Teleportation by using Electromagnetic Foe-tons to create remotely entangled pairs of qubits, the building blocks of Quantum Computing which can attain both "0" and "1" at the same time by virtue of Quantum Superposition unlike a regular bit. Compared to entangled pairs of photons, Nichol says, "Individual electrons are promising qubits owing to their unique property of "Spin" because of which they interact very easily with each other, and individual electron qubits in semiconductors are also scalable."


The Creation and Sustenance of entangled pairs of electron qubits that span long distances, required for teleportation, has proved challenging, though: while photons naturally propagate over long distances, electrons usually are confined to one place. In order to demonstrate Quantum Teleportation involving electrons, the researchers harnessed an ingenious and recently developed technique based on the principles of Heisenberg Exchange Coupling/Interaction. They implemented this technique to distribute entangled pairs of electrons and teleport their spin states, thereby allowing classical communication (information involving Spin States) based on the previously shared Quantum Entanglement between the entangled pair. They hope to extend this to all matter in the Quantum Realm.


"We provide evidence for 'entanglement swapping,' in which we create entanglement between two electrons even though the particles never interact, and 'Quantum Gate Teleportation,' a potentially useful technique for Quantum Computing using Teleportation," Nichol says.

The advent of Entanglement Swapping and eventually teleporting Spin States between entangled electrons heralds the way forward to revolutionize technology, medicine, and science by providing faster and more efficient processors and sensors. The results obtained pave the way for future research on credible grounds for Quantum Teleportation involving spin states of all matter, not just photons, and provide more evidence for the surprisingly useful capabilities of individual electrons in Silicon Spin qubit semiconductors and their increasing feasibility over superconducting qubits.



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